Worms or helminths – parasitic worms is causing a variety of human diseases of the internal organs and triggers the development of more serious diseases. Worms are parasites in the intestine, liver, heart, brain, head, muscles and even eyes. For many years the symptoms of worms in humans may not occur, causing great harm to the body. Today there are about 150 species of helminths. The worms appear not only in children, many types of worms – parasites prefer adults who have a high risk of an infestation with helminths.
Human intestinal worms are divided into two types, belong to the first roundworms and nematodes, the second type includes flat worms – tapeworms and flukes. In addition, parasites in the human body worms are divided into bio-worming, geo-worms and pin worms.
Bio-worms changing multiple owners – media to its full maturation in this group include:
- swine and bovine capni;
- nematodes, cestodes and trematodes.
Geo-helminths organisms, the development of which does not include penetration of the intermediate host. Representatives of the group of geo-helminths:
Pin worms are called pinworms and tapeworms dwarf, first provoke the development of enterobiasis, a second excite the disease gimenolepidoz.
Causes of infection
Worms in the human body appear for different reasons, it all depends on the specific species of the disease-worms. So, the main reason for the appearance of worms is often eating raw meat or meat that has not passed sufficient heat treatment. Beef dwells beef tapeworm, the pork can be a source of infection pork tapeworm. Eating raw, poorly fried, salted fish increases the risk of infestation with opisthorchiasis and wide lentetsa. These types of worms can enter the body through contaminated water, unwashed or washed, invasive water veggies and fruits.
Geo-helminths in the human body get still in larval form, initially, the worms get into the soil with the feces of infected people and animals, and then transmitted to healthy people. Cause – unwashed hands, unwashed food, dishes, linens, toiletries.
The first symptoms of the presence of worms begin to appear after the invasion out of the incubation period. Accurate symptomatic picture depends on the causative agent that parasitizes in the body.
Common symptoms of worms in humans:
- itchy rashes on the skin, prone to recurrence;
- generalized and local edema;
- cough, asthma, fever;
- the increase in regional lymph nodes;
- General malaise, fatigue, weakness;
- pain in the muscles, joints, the abdomen;
- frequent urination, terminal hematuria (blood in the urine);
- pain in the stomach and intestines, impaired stool, bloating;
- involvement of lymph nodes, allergic syndrome with the disease;
- the development of serious diseases – allergic myocarditis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, hepatitis.
How to identify worms in ascariasis, signs of worms in humans:
- rashes on the skin;
- nausea, in severe cases – vomiting;
- abdominal pain;
- the reduction or complete lack of appetite;
- changes in the composition of the blood as a reaction of the organism manifests itself in the form of allergies, blood observed increase in the level of eosinophils.
Without the provision of timely and adequate treatment, complications can occur – is a violation of the integrity of the intestines, increases have been seen in such pathological processes as peritonitis and appendicitis. Lesions can also go to the liver, there is a bowel obstruction.
Manifestations of difillobotrioz:
- violations of the chair – diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- the secretion during defecation the strobile;
- abdominal pain;
- the decrease in body mass.
Complications of difillobotrioz — severe anemia caused by deficiency of protein, iron and vitamin B.
The symptoms that are characteristic of enterobiasis:
- severe itching in the anus and dermatitis anus inflammation of the skin as a result of scratching;
- pain in the abdomen;
- the disease in girls.
When infestations of parasites the disease – ascariasis become evident after two or three days, the disease parasites begins to show itself through 2-3 weeks after infestation, filariasis emerges from the incubation period through 6-18 months.
After a long asymptomatic course of cysticercosis, echinococcosis rot small cysts containing parasites. After rupture of cysts in the body creates favorable conditions for the development of pleurisy, peritonitis, anaphylactic shock, and CNS lesions.
Worms in adults symptoms and treatment of diseases is possible only after determining the exact diagnosis. The main task of diagnostics is the detection of helminth eggs in the stool of the patient. For detection of eggs of pinworms and ascarids also take a scraping from the anus, and in girls in addition to anal scrapings taken from the analysis region of the vagina, the inguinal folds, navel.
In process diagnostic studies in patients with certain types of helminthiasis observed hepatosplenomegaly, such as is typical with the increase in size of liver and spleen. In the patient's blood increases the concentration of eosinophils up to eosinophilia. If you find dysproteinemia, the different types of protein are out of balance, it also indicates the presence of parasites in the human body.
If the organism parasitizes a large number of worms, often develop signs of this condition, there are dyspeptic, nervous and pain syndromes. Such manifestations is half of the evidence collected in favor of certain diseases.
As additional studies of patients prescribed a urine test, blood test, sputum smear, and bile muscle perianal and rectal mucus, the analysis concerns the contents of the duodenum. In order to clarify the localization of worms, conduct ultrasound, endoscopic examination, computed tomography.
Please note! Only after the results of the diagnosis, the doctor can determine how to treat worms in each case. Do not do self-therapy and always follow medical advice.
Treatment of worms, especially in the chronic stage, is carried out by the doctor and under its control. All medications are selected based on the species of the pathogen of a certain disease, also take into account the degree of infestation, presence of comorbidities, complications, feeling sick, as his immune system.
Which drugs can appoint a specialist, depending on the type of helminthiasis:
- the means comprising the substance mebendazole is taking these drugs is reasonable when trihozefaleze and enterobiasis;
- medicines containing a special substance is the most effective drugs, their use for the treatment of all kinds of parasites, including those with lesions of the subcutaneous tissue, eye tissue, lymphatic system;
- that contain levamisole, such drugs have broad spectrum of activity, their use for the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis, toxoplasmosis, enterobiasis;
- medications on the basis of piperazine adipate – this medication is effective in the treatment of ascariasis and enterobiasis, but ascariasis piperazine adipate does not destroy the Ascaris, but only paralyzes it ensures their easy removal from the body of the patient;
- medicinal tablets albendazole – the most effective drugs for the treatment of echinococcosis and cysticercosis;
- medications include praziquantel – effective means, they are prescribed for the treatment of cestodosis, schistosomiasis, paragonimus.
During exacerbation of diseases of parasites, the treatment involves the use infusion in the form of saline solution, gemodez, isotonic glucose solution. Also, the patient is assigned to the injection gluconate or chloride of calcium, vitamin B6, ascorbic acid, sodium bicarbonate, analgin, diphenhydramine, antihistamines , which is necessary for the development of hyperthermia. When high blood pressure is expedient to injection Kordiamin.
If the background of the parasitism of the worms is formed hepatitis or allergic myocarditis, the patient is prescribed Prednisone and potassium supplements. In the case when the development gets heart failure, need treatment with special medications.
Treatment of worms is complex, one of the components of such a complex – immune therapy is needed to improve the body's defenses and fast healing. When you attach a secondary infection or a risk of its becoming, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics to destroy infectious and inflammatory processes.
Please note! If at least one member of the family passes anthelmintic treatment, all other relatives residing with him in the same apartment, must undergo a course of treatment against worms. The same rule applies to Pets of the patient.
After treatment the patient should follow the simple rules of prevention to monitor health, do not forget about personal hygiene, always wash your hands before meals, after walks, socializing with the animals. Thoroughly wash dishes, toiletries.
Mandatory proper heat treatment of meat and fish. If meat and fish are not processed thermally, they need good salt. Fruits and vegetables before consumption should be washed with clean water.