Parasitic organisms surround us everywhere. They cause dangerous diseases for humans - sleeping sickness, trichomoniasis, giardiasis, ascariasis and others. An increase in the number of parasitic diseases is recorded annually in the world. According to WHO clinical data, 3. 5 billion people are infected with parasites. 70% of them are children. What are the symptoms of pathogenic microorganisms in the human body? How to get them out?
Etiology of parasitic diseases
Parasites exist and feed on living organisms: plants, animals, people. They can reside permanently in the host's body or temporarily (for the breeding period). The types of parasitic organisms living in humans are:
- Ectoparasites. They live on the skin and scalp or on the external organs of a person. 92% are temporary or facultative parasites (blood-sucking insects, leeches). They are able to exist independently, outside the host's organism.
- Endoparasites. They live in the internal organs and tissues of the human body.
Pathogenic microorganisms exist in all kingdoms of nature. They are able to feed on various tissues and cells. The causative agents of amoebic dysentery and chronic colitis (Entamoeba histolytica) affect the mucous membranes in the large intestine, creating bleeding and open wounds called amoebic ulcers. The organ cannot function normally, pathological changes in the work of the gastrointestinal tract begin.
Main types of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Protozoa - ciliates (balantidia), amoeba (dysentery), trypanosome (sleeping sickness is caused by a parasite that can affect the central nervous system, has a name - Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) and others. They live in the intestines and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, causing severe intestinal infections; organs of the urinary and reproductive system of a person.
- Worms are the most widespread and numerous human parasites. Representatives: flukes (Trematoda), tapeworms, flatworms - (Cestoda), roundworms - (Nematoda), acanthocephali (Acanthocephali). They live inside a person in the intestines, in the stomach, in the lungs; able to penetrate the heart, eyes, urinary and genital organs. 2-3% live in muscles and bones, brain.
Main methods of infection:
- Bites of blood-sucking insects (mosquitoes, horseflies, flies can spread infection over long distances).
- Contact with animals. According to clinical studies of parasitologists, dogs are the main, asymptomatic carriers of echinococcosis.
- Unwashed fruits and vegetables.
- Failure to comply with the rules of personal hygiene (unwashed hands before eating) - up to 86% of children under 14 become infected in this way.
- Drinking unboiled, drinking water from reservoirs and unverified sources.
- Swimming in prohibited places. Parasites living in water bodies enter the human body through the skin or by accidental ingestion. They also live in fish and shellfish (a reservoir for bovine and pork tapeworm - a small pond snail).
- Unprotected sex - trichomoniasis.
The clinical picture of diseases caused by parasites
Symptoms of the disease depend on the type of parasite and its location. The manifestations of the disease are influenced by the patient's general health and age. A person is able to live with parasites in the human body for a long time and not know their presence. With a decrease in immunity, he will show the first symptom of infection.
The signs of the disease begin with fever, weakness, and fatigue. The clinical picture of diseases caused by cestodes or amoebae is different.
One and a half billion people in the world suffer from nematode infections, 70% of them are children. Different types of helminths can cause different diseases. The main symptoms of the presence of worms parasitizing in the gastrointestinal tract, the body are:
- Dyspeptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Disorders of feces in humans, persistent tenesmus.
- The first signs of hemorrhoids.
- General symptoms of body intoxication.
Helminth, affecting the sensory system of the body, leads to keratitis, iritis, conjunctivitis of the eyes. At the terminal stage, a person completely loses his sight.
The second most common diseases in the world are echinococcosis. Echinococcus, a parasite in the liver, causes the following symptoms in a person: a feeling of heaviness, pain in the right hypochondrium, chronic fatigue, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes. At the terminal stages: abdominal bleeding, sepsis and abscesses and liver cysts with possible rupture and release of purulent contents into the abdominal cavity (peritonitis).
With pulmonary echinococcosis, patients show signs of suffocation, pressing chest pain, cough (at an early stage - dry, at the terminal stage - with purulent, green discharge and blood). According to clinical studies and observations, an adult patient develops pleurisy, inflammation of the lung tissue, peritonitis (the consequences of rupture of cysts and the throwing of pus into the pleural cavity and bronchi).
In 2% of cases, echinococci are capable of affecting the brain: a connective tissue, dense capsule is formed around the ribbon, surrounded by a membrane of inflammatory-altered brain tissues - glia. On MRI, multiple foci of parasitic cysts and hemorrhages are diagnosed. Hyperemia captures the membranes in the area of the bladder. At the initial stage, the patient complains of constant headaches, dizziness, vomiting, tremors of the extremities, and epileptic seizures. On the terminal, paresis of the lower or upper extremities develops. The patient is diagnosed with mental and neurogenic personality disorders: delirium, manic - depressive states, dementia.
In river fish - ruffs, perches, pikes, tapeworms (tapeworms) live, which can cause diphyllobothriasis in humans. The disease is asymptomatic for a long time in the intestines in the rectum. Against the background of a decrease in immunity or an exacerbation of chronic diseases, the appearance of symptoms is diagnosed. Patients experience lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen, unstable stools, persistent tenesmus, weakness, fatigue, paresthesias of the lower extremities. With hypersensitivity, a rash and papules appear on the skin. At the terminal stage, the patient is diagnosed with B12 - anemia. Anisakids live in sea fish - herring, cod, pollock, salmon, sea bass. They provoke the development of anisacidosis. The symptomatology of the disease is similar to diphyllobothriasis.
Parasites cause venereal, infectious diseases. In the countries of the world, 250 million people develop trichomoniasis infection every year. Clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis:
- Hyperemia and edema of the vaginal mucosa.
- Burning and constant itching.
- Pain when urinating.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Dark green with blood and mucus from the vagina.
Trichomoniasis is dangerous for pregnant women and children. The disease causes severe complications in the embryo and newborn.
Treatment and diagnosis of human parasitic diseases
In 85% of cases, parasitic diseases start abruptly: high body temperature, diarrhea, nausea, weakness, or other symptoms. A person seeks a doctor for advice. The doctor examines the patient, collects anamnesis, answers questions and prescribes a referral for laboratory and instrumental studies. Patients ask: How to treat? How to remove and expel pathogenic microorganisms? Treatment methods depend on the type and type of parasite (protozoan, worm).
- Complete blood count with leukocyte count and ESR. An increase in ESR indicates inflammatory processes in the body; an increase in the number of eosinophils - for nematous infection.
- Immunoassay and immunological blood test.
- With echinococcosis, an x-ray is performed - an examination of the chest, intestines (with a contrast agent) to establish the localization of the cysts.
- Study of feces for parasites, general coprogram.
- Smears from the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix with trichomoniasis.
- PCR - this analysis allows you to identify the infectious agent with 98% accuracy.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, genitourinary system.
- ECG, EEG.
After receiving the tests, the doctor will prescribe the treatment. The scheme includes reducing the symptoms of the disease, destroying parasites and removing them from the body. The patient must follow a strict diet. Food should be steamed or boiled. Exclusion from the diet of fatty, spicy and salty foods. In order to get rid of the infection, they use drug therapy (prescribe pills, injections, suppositories). The drugs of choice against protozoal infections are antiprotozoal, antibacterial agents. Surgical treatment is used only in the terminal stages of the disease. Additionally, antihistamines are prescribed to relieve inflammation and swelling.
In the intestinal stages of ascariasis, the doctor prescribes anthelmintic drugs. The tablets destroy parasites and eliminate the symptoms of the disease. Eye drops are dripped into the conjunctiva that can kill and remove pathogenic microorganisms.
Pills alone cannot cure the disease, in addition to it, folk remedies, herbal medicine are used. The main herbs for removing worms are tansy, wormwood, marsh calamus, fennel.
With diphyllobothriasis and anisacidosis, patients are prescribed a strict, curative diet and medicinal substances that can remove and cure the body from pathogenic microorganisms.
For sleeping sickness, a drug is prescribed that can rid patients of trypanosomes.
For sexually transmitted diseases, gynecologists prescribe antiprotozoal drugs, additional suppositories or vaginal tablets. Before going to bed, it is advised to carry out baths with chamomile and calendula to relieve itching and burning.
Folk remedies for getting rid of parasites
Consider a herbal infusion recipe for worming out worms. To prepare the infusion, take 4 g of wormwood, 5 pieces of cloves; add 2 g knotweed, marsh calamus and thyme, 2 g lemon balm and tansy inflorescences, 0. 5 g valerian. Mix well and pour 500 ml of hot water, let it brew for 12 hours and drink during the day after eating.
5 g of chamomile, common tansy, buckthorn and oak bark are poured with hot water and placed in a warm place for 7-8 hours. It is advisable to use a thermos. To remove helminths, drink 5 tablespoons after meals 3 times a day.
In order to completely get rid of worms, use enemas with herbal decoctions, garlic. To prepare it, 5-6 cloves of garlic are poured with half a glass of cold water; put on fire and bring to a boil, but do not boil. Then cool and carry out the procedure 2 hours before leaving the house. Along with the stool, parasites will leave the intestines.
Getting rid of worms with baking soda is an unusual and untested method. With it, enemas and oral solutions are made. Before the procedures, you need to talk to your doctor.
It is important to remember that herbs have contraindications for use. Before using them, you should consult a doctor. Main contraindications: pregnancy, childhood, gastrointestinal diseases.
With timely treatment, a person gets rid of parasites completely. The patient must correctly follow the doctor's prescription and take medications. After a course of therapy, he must undergo examinations by doctors for a year and take tests.
Prevention is aimed at preventing cysts, larvae of parasites from entering the human body. The doctor will tell the patient what the worms look like, about the methods of protection and first aid for parasitic infections. Medicine has not created vaccines and vaccinations against such infections.
- Maintaining personal hygiene. A person should wash their hands with soap or other disinfectant after using the toilet, walking, handling soil and water, and before every meal.
- Moms need to monitor and teach their children to maintain personal hygiene. Do not put dirty hands or objects in your mouth.
- Vegetables, berries and fruits should be washed in warm (hot) water before use, preferably with baking soda to kill parasites and cysts.
- Water must be boiled before drinking. Do not drink from unverified sources (bodies of water, rivers).
- You cannot swim in prohibited places - not equipped ponds and ponds.
- Monitor the health of your pets. Conduct preventive courses against parasites. Use drops applied to the withers for cats and dogs as prophylaxis and first aid for parasitic infections.
- Prepare fish and meat products strictly according to technology.
- Having one partner, avoiding promiscuous sex.